In a fascinating piece FrontPage magazine profiles John Quincy Adams and his relationship as president and policy maker to Muslim nation-states. He had extensive knowledge of Islam, both from review of the Quran and other holy literature, and from the different armed conflicts (Barbary Coast Pirates, for one) the USA had with Muslim entities.
He understood clearly that the Quran states that there are two classes of persons, those in submission to Allah and his prophet, and those at WAR with Islam. The idea of of Jihad being some internal spiritual struggle is selling the West what it wants to hear. Adams understood that central to Islam is the idea of extending the Muslim religion by the sword. It is really an amazing review. If you spiff up the stilted 18th/19th century language a bit, the issues really haven't changed at all.